Since the display of energy performance was made mandatory for any sale or lease, the issue of energy quality is more acute. Whether it is to value its good or gain comfort in life.
Reducing energy consumption, the French are thinking more and more about it. If only because it is weighing even more in their budget. For 2011 alone, natural gas tariffs have increased by more than 20% over one year – 60% since 2005. The electricity bill also continues to grow. After the January rise (+ 3%), a further increase took place at the beginning of July (+ 2.9%). Applicants to purchase or lease are all the more aware of these issues as real estate ads must now mention the energy consumption of dwellings, via an energy label that includes the classification mentioned in the energy performance diagnosis ( DPE) previously established. Despite many reservations about the overall quality of these diagnoses, Such a display now makes it possible to visualize the energy consumption of a dwelling, on a scale from A to G. And it is no longer without influence on prices. This is evidenced by a study published at the end of March by Locservice, a private rental portal, carried out on a panel of 9,000 housing units or apartments. The average rent for leases classified A or B was 665 E, property labeled C or D decreased to 630 E and fell to 591 E for a lease with an energy class F or G. In France, 80% of the dwellings would have A rating between D and F, according to Exim-expertise, a network of firms specializing in real estate diagnostics; The average consumption of the French park is around 240 kwEP / m2 / year, the equivalent of the letter E on an ECD. Gold, The energy classification has a major impact in terms of financing an acquisition, since it conditions the granting of the PTZ +. The amount of this accession aid is indexed to the energy quality of the home: it can reach 20% of the cost of the acquisition – with different ceilings depending on the geographical area and composition of the home – if The DPE classifies the dwelling between A and D. But if the latter is scored from E to G, the amount obtained will be limited to 10% of the amount of the transaction.
As a result, the prices of the most energy-consuming goods have been subject to correction. “Buyers try to offset in the purchase price what they lose in improved loan. This is even more striking outside the large agglomerations, in the markets less tense, “says Jean-Michel Ciuch, Director of Immogroup Consulting. The energy performance of a dwelling is thus becoming a real leverage of negotiation. “The perception of the cost price of a dwelling is in its infancy. If the valuation of economical housing is difficult to quantify today, there is no doubt that the gap will widen between dwellings whose cost is low and others in the years to come, “says Stéphane Imowicz, CEO To the Crédit foncier immobilier.It is in this spirit that the L’Adresse network is preparing to launch a calculation engine to estimate the cost price of a dwelling by including, over a long period, the costs of heating, And even gasoline, if the property is located outside agglomeration. While energy renovation remains complex to implement in condominiums, This is not the case in single-family homes. Provided you make the right choices.
Assess housing needs
Compulsory before any sale of housing since 2006, the DPE, if it fulfills its role of informing the purchasing candidates, proves to be largely insufficient as soon as it is necessary to evaluate the needs for work of a building, a house. Even if it is “voluntary”, that is to say, carried out outside a leasing or sales process and benefiting from a 45% tax credit, “it makes it possible to locate the property thermally, But it is not in thirty minutes that a diagnostician will be able to advise you a bunch of works adapted to the specificities of your dwelling, “acknowledges Jean-Pierre Molia, president of the Federation of Diagnostics of the building (Fneci). Despite the limitations of the method used, which is based above all on the consumption of housing, The ECD results are often used by companies that now specialize in energy renovation work. “This type of analysis is insufficient and often oriented,” explains Dimitri Molle, founder of the thermal engineering department Sénova: “The algorithms used in computing software are regulatory but not integrated in the same way. The recommendations can be easily oriented in favor of a particular craft. “The same is true of Jean-Pierre Molia, of Fneci:” It is often the first professional to arrive on the premises that guides the work. If he is a heating engineer, chances are he will recommend changing the boiler. If it is a supplier of electricity, the housing will remain at the all electric. To obtain a true analysis of the energy losses of your dwelling, Ademe recommends using the services of a thermal design office. If the 3CL (1) methodused for DPE takes into account about thirty entry points – soon 60 – a thermal study based on the TH-C-Ex (2) method comprises between 200 and 300. ” Reading a real thermal study, the owner must be able to say: I will do this work, this way and for this budget, “says Dimitri Molle de Senova. A thermal design office can also, as part of a more in-depth follow-up, compare the specifications and verify whether the thermal recommendations have been respected. Attention, however, the profession of thermic engineer is not regulated. In order to ensure its seriousness, it is necessary to verify if the professional is in possession of a civil and decennial liability insurance issued as a thermal engineering office. Recommendations, follow-up of the work, the mission of the design office stops. “Obviously, it is not obvious to everyone, but a thermal engineering firm, it is not a generalist company of electrical diagnostics, termite, ECD, humidity … And it is not supposed to carry out the work “Says Rémi Traversier, Info-Énergie advisor in Cachan. Warning: a certain number of companies take advantage of the legislative vagueness surrounding this profession to carry out a free thermal study (often a disguised DPE) and invoice works or the sale of materials of the type heat pumps.
What does a real thermal study cost? Generally much more than a simple DPE, since it takes between 800 and 1200 E depending on the area audited for a visit of two to three hours. However, this study can be publicly funded locally. This is the case in the Aquitaine region, where the Regional Council finances it to the tune of 50%, but with a ceiling of 300 E.
Isolation, a site often a priority
According to the Ademe, 25 to 30% of the heat escapes through the roof, 20 to 25% by the walls, 10 to 15% by the windows. Although this hierarchy is rarely upset, the results obtained depend on the configuration of the premises. “When the house is already partially insulated, which is often the case, at least for the attic, the gain will be much less, because it is always the first centimeters of insulation that are most effective. The potential savings can only be assessed on the spot, “says Dimitri Molle. Especially since the priorities will also result from the owner’s project. “The levers of action will not be the same on a limited budget or according to whether one wants a quick return on investment or a better comfort of life. “Thus, in terms of performance, The installation of a low-consumption boiler is theoretically repayable between four and nine years thanks to a reduction in the energy bill of nearly 28% and to state aids. However, it is not recommended to make it its priority. “It’s a mistake to change your heating system without having properly insulated beforehand. The boiler room will not be well dimensioned when the time comes for the work of isolation, “warns Florence Clément, in charge of public information at Ademe.
In the context of an energy renovation, certain bouquets of works prove to be particularly effective. Thus, the insulation of the attic coupled to the installation of a condensing boiler makes it possible to approach a reduction in conventional consumption (3) of the order of 50% A gain of two notes (DPE) compared to a house heated by oil or gas. On the invoice, for a house of 100 m2, this equates to an economy between 800 and 1200 E annually according to its initial heating mode, according to the National Agency for Housing (Anah) which Has published a guide on the effectiveness of energy renovation works. Other effective torque: insulation of the attic and half of the walls from the outside. The cost of such an intervention varies between 5,000 and 10,000 E, but saves nearly 37%, equivalent to a two-letter gain on the ECD scale when the dwelling is heated by gas or oil – A letter when heated electrically. A bouquet of three works – insulation of the attic, Interior walls and boiler replacement – can boost energy savings to almost 62%, a three-letter leap, for example, to switch from G to D. provided that it can invest between 13 500 E and 24 500 E. In all cases, the gains will be very variable depending on the heating mode used. “For an electrically heated housing, it will be very difficult to get correct performance at a reasonable cost. The recommendations will always vary according to what was previously installed, “judge Florence Clement de l’Ademe. “For an electrically heated housing, it will be very difficult to get correct performance at a reasonable cost. The recommendations will always vary according to what was previously installed, “judge Florence Clement de l’Ademe. “For an electrically heated housing, it will be very difficult to get correct performance at a reasonable cost. The recommendations will always vary according to what was previously installed, “judge Florence Clement de l’Ademe.
Find the right professional
Born with the “Grenelle de l’environnement”, the question of the energy renovation of buildings is also an issue for companies. To meet the emerging demand, the major professional organizations have put in place certifications validating their members’ renovation skills: eco-craftsmen, at the initiative of the Confederation of Craftsmen and Small Building Enterprises (Capeb ), “The energy performance pros” for the French Building Federation (FFB), or the artisans certified Qualibat. For the installation of renewable energy systems (ENR) there are certifications for each specialty: QualiPac for heat pumps, QualiSol for solar thermal, QualiPV for photovoltaic or Qualibois, for installation of wood-fired systems . The latter must date from the current year, as companies must have all the training modules, recalls the Ademe. While these certifications demonstrate a quality approach, they do not presage the seriousness of the company. “You can never 100% guarantee the competence of a professional, but this type of approach is at least a prerequisite for projects of this nature. It will be necessary to check that these craftsmen have all the insurance certificates in progress, certificates of competence concerning their field of activity and, of course, to ensure that the equipment sold and the installation are under warranty, Reminds Rémi Traversier. In any case, it will be useful to ask to see work sites previously carried out by this same company. Manufacturers are also a valuable source for finding professionals accustomed to using their materials. In any case, avoid looking at the yellow pages or the Internet indiscriminately. Knowing that it is easier to appear on the front page of a search engine or directory (just choose a company name starting with A. Some have become a specialty) than to provide A quality service. “Setting up bouquets of work is a new job. A heating engineer must have an overall view of a building site. Let him have the reflex to check the quality of the insulation before thinking about changing the boiler. This calls for goodwill and skills, “said Philippe Lansard, head of the energy performance group at the French Building Federation. To increase consumer visibility, the government is considering the creation of a single label, known as “Quali Grenelle”, which could allow individuals to choose the companies best suited to carry out their energy saving work. This label, led by Ademe, could be put in place in November 2011. Regarding the labels and companies already certified, discussions are underway, which could lead to their integration, initially, to the label Quali Grenelle .
Benefit from existing aid
There are a number of aids for individuals. The Sustainable Development Tax Credit allows households to receive tax assistance to finance some of the energy-saving work done in their principal residence. Like all tax schemes, the tax system suffered a 10% slump in 2011. This year, the amount of expenses eligible for the tax credit is capped at 8 000 E for a single person and 16 000 E for a couple subject to common taxation, plus 400 E per dependent. The scheme is different for the lessors: the ceiling is 8 000 E per dwelling, within the limit of three dwellings per year (see list of eligible materials on impot.gouv.fr).
The zero-interest eco-loan, Is an interest-free loan to finance the energy-saving work and any costs incurred by this work. It is allocated to owners, occupiers or landlords, without condition of resources. To benefit from this, a “bunch of works” must be implemented, such as the insulation of the roof associated with the installation of a domestic hot water production system. However, this subsidized loan may be obtained outside the bouquet, provided that it reaches a minimum overall energy performance threshold for the dwelling. In a more rare case, it can be validated in the case of a rehabilitation of the non-collective sanitation system by a device that does not consume energy. Only one eco-loan with a zero rate can be granted per dwelling. It provides for the financing of the supply and installation of new structures (provided that the equipment or material meets the technical conditions for eligibility), the induced works are inextricably linked, the project management costs, etc. (See developpement-durable.gouv.fr).
In addition, Anah provides basic assistance to resource-hungry owners and complementary aid under the Habiter mieux program.
The latter are linked to the existence of a local commitment contract against fuel poverty in the territory where the housing is located.
Finally, depending on its location, the local authorities – regional and general councils, agglomeration communities – can provide support. occasionally,
(1) Calculation of conventional consumption of dwellings.
(2) Method used by the certifiers of the BBC Effinergie label, adapted to the renovation.
(3) Conventional consumption of primary energy corresponds to the sum of the building’s consumption in heating, cooling, lighting, ventilation, auxiliaries and heating of domestic hot water